Collective Self-Deception Collective self-deception has received scant direct philosophical attention as compared with its individual counterpart. Specifically, Mele refuses to identify the motivating desire as a desire that p , leaving the content of the motivation in question open. Guidance control, in this sense, requires that the mechanism in question be capable of recognizing and responding to moral and non-moral reasons sufficient for acting otherwise. While the precise relationship between wishful thinking and self-deception is clearly a matter of debate, there are plausible ways of distinguishing the two that do not invoke the intention to deceive. Non-intentionalists respond that what distinguishes wishful thinking from self-deception is that self-deceivers recognize evidence against their self-deceptive belief whereas wishful thinkers do not Bach ; Johnston , or merely possess, without recognizing, greater counterevidence than wishful thinkers. While Lynch does not think tension is necessary , he accepts the idea that it is characteristic of self-deception, and can be accounted for by construing self-deception as involving an unwarranted degree of confidence that p , rather than wholehearted belief that p as Mele does.
It may be the case that an independent party could examine the situation and agree that the evidence is overwhelming that the child is lying, but if the independent party were wrong we would say that he or she was mistaken , not self-deceived. In Evolution and Literary Theory , he integrated concepts from Darwinian social science with concepts from traditional literary study, and he used that set of ideas as a framework within which to criticize and reject poststructuralist literary theory. The social support cannot be the sole or primary cause of the self-deceptive belief, for then the belief would simply be the result of unwitting interpersonal deception and not the deviant belief formation process that characterizes self-deception. The collective entrenches self-deceptive beliefs by providing positive reinforcement by others sharing the same false belief, as well as protection from evidence that would destabilize the target belief. The author would like to thank Margaret DeWeese-Boyd and Douglas Young and the editors for their help in constructing and revising this entry. Only two percent think they are below average.
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When self-deceptive beliefs such as these are held collectively, they become entrenched and their consequences, good or bad, are magnified Surbey They could easily see the flaws in critical comments. To answer these and other questions, more precise accounts of these forms of self-deception are needed. Lawson notes that the pox here is syphilis. So how, in general, can an agent deceive himself by employing a self-deceptive strategy?
Description: Group list, with permission from the authors. There are two major questions regarding the morality of self-deception: To the extent that cultural studies placed the primitive back at that center of our politics, we are in its debt. The Walls Came Tumbling Up: Self-Deception of a Collective Entity Collective self-deception can also be understood from the perspective of the collective itself in a non-summative sense.